Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition

Canadian Law Dictionary.

A; B;  C; D; E; F; G & H; I; J; L; M; N; O; P; Q; R; S; T; U; V; W;

 

 

Garnishee:
The seizure of property, monies, earnings, receivables belonging to a debtor that are in the hands of a third party.

Gazette:
Official Government (both Provincial and Federal) publication in which public notices and statutory regulations are advertised. Published by Queen's Printer.

Gazump:
To increase by subsequent bidding by an individual with effect of annulling any previous offer.

General Security Agreement (GSA):
A contract under which all the personal property of a debtor is pledged as security to a lender.

Gift Over:
A device used in wills and trusts to provide for the gift of property to a second recipient if a certain event occurs, such as the death of the first recipient. For example, I give you my car but on your death you must give it to your child; that is a gift over to the benefit of your child.

Good Samaritan Law or Doctrine:
a legal principle that prevents a rescuer who has voluntarily helped a victim in distress from being successfully sued for 'wrongdoing.' Its purpose is to keep people from being so reluctant to help a stranger in need for fear of legal repercussions if they made some mistake in treatment.

Goodwill:
That value attributed to a business that is not tangible, but arises from the reputation, expertise, service or some other intangible that attaches to the business and makes it have more worth than just the value of its assets.

Grand Jury:
An American criminal justice procedure whereby, in each court district, a group of 16-23 citizens hold an inquiry on criminal complaints brought by the prosecutor and decide if a trial is warranted, in which case an indictment is issued. If a Grand Jury rejects a proposed indictment it is known as a "no bill"; if they accept to endorse a proposed indictment it is known as a "true bill".

Gross Negligence:
Any action or an omission in reckless disregard of the consequences to the safety or property of another. Sometimes referred to as "very great negligence" and it is more then just neglect of ordinary care towards others or just inadvertence. Also known as the Latin term culpa lata.

Guarantor:
A person who pledges collateral for the contract of another or who guarantees to pay a certain debt of a debtor if the debtor defaults.

Guardian Ad Litem:
A guardian appointed to assist an infant or other mentally incapable defendant or plaintiff, or any such incapacitated person that may be a party in a legal action.
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Habeas Corpus:
Latin: a court petition which orders that a person being detained be produced before a judge for a hearing to decide whether the detention is lawful. Habeas corpus was one of the concessions the British Monarch made in the Magna Carta and has stood as a basic individual right against arbitrary arrest and imprisonment.

Habitual Offender:
A person who is convicted and sentenced for crimes over a period of time and even after serving sentences of incarceration, demonstrates a propensity towards criminal conduct.

Harassment:
Unsolicited words or conduct which tend to annoy, alarm or abuse another person.

Hearsay:
Any evidence that is offered by a witness of which they do not have direct knowledge but, rather, their testimony is based on what others have said to them.

Holograph Will:
A will written entirely in the testator's handwriting and not witnessed.

Homicide:
The taking of a life by act or omission.

Hostile Witness:
During an examination-in-chief, a lawyer is not allowed to ask leading questions of their own witness. But, if that witness openly shows hostility against the interests (or the person) that the lawyer represents, the lawyer may ask the court to declare the witness "hostile", after which, as an exception of the examination-in-chief rules, the lawyer may ask their own witness leading questions.

Hung Jury:
A jury is required to make a unanimous or near unanimous verdict. When the jurors, after full debate and discussion, are unable to agree on a verdict and are deadlocked with differences of opinion that appear to be irreconcilable, it is said to be a "hung jury". The result is a mistrial.

Husband-Wife Privilege:
A special right that married persons have to keep communications between them secret and even inaccessible to a court of law. It has always been held to be lifted where one spouse commits a crime on the other. Similar to the client-solicitor privilege.

Hypothecate:
To mortgage or pledge without delivery of title or possession. To place or leave an item of property in the custody of another.
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